30 May, 2008

Paris 1968 Posters


May 1968 Slogans

Slogans of the May 1968 revolt in France. These first appeared mainly on the walls of Paris during May and then spread internationally


* Je jouis dans les pavés.

I find my orgasms among the paving stones.

* L'art est mort, ne consommez pas son cadavre.

Art is dead, don't consume its corpse.

29 May, 2008

May 1968 - Protest Posters

The posters of the Paris uprising of May 1968 comprise some of the most brilliant graphic works ever to have been associated with a movement for social and political change. This selection of original posters coincides with The Hayward’s 40th birthday and celebrates the vibrant activist graphics and revolutionary spirit of summer 1968.

The exhibition is curated by Johan Kugelberg in collaboration with The Hayward curatorial team and Jeff Boardman, Creative Director of Freewheelin’.

Supported by Converse with additional support from the New York Herald Tribune and Time Out.

To complement this exhibition, Magnum Photos present a projection of photographs by Bruno Barbey, whose record of the Paris riots produced some of the most iconic images from that year.

Thursday 1 May 2008 - Sunday 1 June 2008






40 years ago next month, the streets of the French capital saw workers and students protesting against the increasing levels of unemployment and poverty that were all too apparent under Charles de Gaulle’s conservative government. As a reminder of the power of self-initiated protest, May 68: Street Posters from the Paris Rebellion, launches this Thursday at the Hayward Project Space in London and brings together a range of handmade posters that were used to convey the protestors’ grievances during the uprisings. Before the show opens, we talked to the exhibition’s organiser and curator, Johan Kugelberg, about how this vibrant and uncompromising graphic art came about and what it means today…

In Paris, on the 16 May, students and faculty staff took over the Ecole des Beaux Arts to establish the Atelier Populaire (the Popular Workshop). The organisation went on to produce hundreds of silkscreen posters in an unprecedented outpouring of political graphic art. In a statement, the Atelier Populaire declared the posters “weapons in the service of the struggle… an inseparable part of it. Their rightful place is in the centres of conflict, that is to say, in the streets and on the walls of the factories.”

Q&A with May 68 curator, Johan Kugelberg:


In May 1968 students in Paris occupied university buildings to launch an avalanche of protests and strikes against the authorities. This was only the beginning of a wide-ranging social and cultural revolution that involved not only students and workers, but public servants, journalists, artists, and youth as well.

Thousands of flyers, posters, bulletins and pamphlets constitute the 'Paris Mai-Juin '68' collection at the IISH. A selection is presented below on the occasion of the fortieth birthday of Paris, May 1968



Build an Etching Press

This site is home to a project that began a few years ago.(The Whole Story) Its purpose is to provide information to Intaglio printmakers wishing to build their own Etching Press. Here you will find info and plans for building your press. This link Sample Gallery will show you some examples of what you can accomplish with these plans and a little willpower.


Traces du Sacré - paris

With “Traces du Sacré,” already promising to be one of the major artistic events of the year, the Centre Pompidou returns to the tradition of major multidisciplinary exhibitions that made its reputation, offering a visual exploration of one of the most pressing issues of our time.

Traces du Sacré
7 May - 11 August 2008

Following what has come to be called “the disenchantment of the world,” a significant strain of modern art has found its roots in the turmoil attendant upon the loss of conventional religious belief, a terrain that continues to nourish the development of contemporary forms.

Taking in the whole history of twentieth-century art, from Caspar David Friedrich to Kandinsky, from Malevich to Picasso, and from Barnett Newman to Bill Viola, the exhibition looks at the way in which art to continues to testify, in often unexpected ways, to the existence of a universe beyond, remaining, in a thoroughly secularised world, the profane vehicle of an ineluctable need to rise above the quotidian.

This broad selection of paintings, sculptures, installations and videos brings together some 350 major works – many of them never seen before in France – by almost 200 artists of international renown.





Educational Sheet with images
Dossier html


More educational handouts on the Centre's collection and exhibits

Artforum: May ’68

In this issue of Artforum: May ’68. The sheer magnitude of the events that took place in Paris and around the world forty years ago this month remains striking, and indeed, those paroxysms of protest are often the stuff of nostalgia—and yet their true significance is perhaps still unclear when it comes to the shapes of aesthetic, social, and political narratives today. Seeking to take stock of our own moment, Artforum invited more than a dozen art historians, artists, and philosophers to investigate that seminal moment of rupture in historical counterpoint...



27 May, 2008

Imogen Stidworthy

DIE LUCKY BUSH a project of Imogen Stidworthy

23 may 2008 - 17 aug 2008


The central question in DIE LUCKY BUSH is what other form of meaning can arise when something is experienced as unreadable?

Museum van Hedendaagse Kunst Antwerpen
Leuvenstraat 32, 2000 Antwerpen België

the new normal

Welcome to the home page for THE NEW NORMAL, a traveling exhibition co-organized by iCI and Artists Space. It features thirteen recent artworks that use private information as raw material and subject matter.

From here you can see pictures from the exhibition, browse links to artists' and other related sites, watch videos pertaining to the show, read curator Michael Connor's blog, or be friends with us on MySpace and Facebook.

You can also order the catalogue, which features essays by Michael Connor, Clay Shirky and Marisa Olson.

April 25 - June 21, 2008 NY


Dictionary of Australian Artists Online

Dictionary of Australian Artists Online - There is life after the exhibition catalogue

The Dictionary of Australian Artists Online (DAAO) is a new, free research tool dedicated to Australian art scholarship. Museums and galleries are in a prime position to benefit as the DAAO builds a detailed map of Australia?s cultural landscape and the lives of its artists. Australia?s leading universities and galleries are already submitting artist
biographies to the site.

The aim is to, in time, hold a comprehensive demography of all Australian artists. Your input will help us achieve this goal.

The DAAO currently has over 7,000 artist biographies, and publishes new research every week from its member base of over 400 historians, academics, arts professionals and artists.

What can it do for you?You can use the DAAO as a home for your information and as a tool to discover new knowledge.

Research: a ready research and reference tool.DAAO is a great way for gallery curators, archivists and guides to discover information on artists, their works and associates in minutes rather than months.

Publishing service:The DAAO offers an enduring and accessible home for your research. The DAAO is capable of addition, revision and commentary and links to online image collections.

National and international exposure: by submitting your local knowledge it will become part of a national information base on Australian artists: past and present; Indigenous and non-indigenous; across all media.

How long does it take?Submitting information to the DAAO is easy; authors submit their work in minutes.


An initiative of the University of NSW, supported by the Australian
Research Council

25 May, 2008

Street Art - Tate Modern UK

23 May – 25 August 2008

In the first commission to use the building's iconic river façade, and the first major public museum display of street art in London, Tate Modern presents the work of six internationally acclaimed artists whose work is intricately linked to the urban environment:

Blu from Bologna, Italy; the artist collective Faile from New York, USA; JR from Paris, France; Nunca and Os Gemeos, both from Sao Paulo, Brazil and Sixeart from Barcelona, Spain.


You can also take the Street Art Walking Tour: an urban tour of site-specific art from a group of five Madrid-based street artists: 3TTMan, Spok, Nano 4814, El Tono and Nuria – a map is available here and in the gallery.

Various events will take place during the exhibition, including an interactive evening with experimental New York artists Graffiti Research Lab, refacing Tate Modern with graffiti light projections.

Street Art at Tate Modern opens at the same time as Tate Modern's four day festival of art and performance, UBS Openings: The Long Weekend on 23 May.

Play the Street Art game from Tate Kids

Graffiti Research Lab
Monday 26 May 2008, 19.00–22.00

A free event as part of Tate Modern’s Street Art exhibition curated and promoted by young people encourages youth across South London to work with New York artists Graffiti Reaserch Lab to mark the building with light projections. ‘Tate Studio’ is a free event with a vibrant line up of street artists, bands and DJs who will take over the Level 2 Café and other areas of the gallery encouraging young people to experiment with different forms of street art such as projection, drawing and sticker-layering. The event will include a temporary installation by Random International. Young people have invited experimental and award-winning New York artists Graffiti Research Lab, who will reface Tate Modern with a spectacle of light projections. Young people will be able to create their own digital street art instantly scaled up and projected onto London’s largest modern art gallery. Tate Modern Front walls of Tate Modern
Free, no bookings taken

24 May, 2008

Whiteley & Bacon

He married Wendy Julius in 1962, and their only child, daughter Arkie Whiteley, was born in London in 1964. While in London, Whiteley painted works in several different series of works: bathing, the zoo and the Christie series. It was these abstracted works which established him as an artist, right at the time when many other Australian artists were exhibiting in London. He painted Woman in Bath as part of a series of works he was doing of bathroom pictures.

In 1964, while in London, Whiteley was fascinated by the murderer John Christie, who had committed murders in the area near where Whiteley was staying at Ladbroke Grove. He painted a series of paintings based on these events, including Head of Christie. The painting is a face which has been warped and distorted, with a mean looking expression, but is not too gruesome to be horrible.




"In the 1960s, London was the place to be, as young musicians, writers, painters, and filmmakers threw off the shackles imposed by their elders and created a vibrant, swinging culture. Among those bringing about these changes were a number of significant Australians.

They included Barry Humphries, with his scatological cartoon, The Adventures of Barry McKenzie, in the satirical magazine, Private Eye; Richard Neville, publishing his underground magazine, Oz, which became the focus of an epoch-marking censorship trial; Germaine Greer, writing her explosive feminist book, The Female Eunuch; Rolf Harris, entertaining with his wobble-board and house-paint art; The Seekers, topping the pop charts with World of Our Own; Martin Sharp, designing psychedelic record covers and writing songs for Cream; Brett Whiteley, exhibiting paintings of the serial-killer, John Christie; Bruce Beresford, beginning his film career at the British Film Institute; Clive James, launching himself as a television critic and performer; Robert Hughes, eloquently provocative as art critic for The Observer and BBC-TV; The Easybeats, topping the pop charts with their youth anthem, Friday on My Mind; and Sidney Nolan, promoting Australian larrikinism through his paintings of the Australian outlaw, Ned Kelly.



Lying Figure with Hypodermic Syringe 1963


This was painted by Bacon the year before Whiteley started his Christie paintings. Unfortunately there are no images of whiteley's Christie paintings available online for comparative purposes.

Rachel Ruysch

RUYSCH, Rachel (baptised The Hague, 3 June 1664 – died Amsterdam, 12 October 1750), still-life painter. Daughter of Frederik Ruysch (1638-1731), professor of anatomy and botany, and Maria Post (1643-1720). Rachel Ruysch married Jurriaan Pool (1666-1745), painter, on 12 August 1693 in Amsterdam. The couple had 10 children.

By the time she was fourteen, Rachel Ruysch was painting animals and plants with such enthusiasm, diligence and skill that her parents gave her permission to study with a painter. For a girl this was not unheard-of, but still highly unusual. Otto Marseus had died in the meantime, so Rachel was apprenticed to Willem van Aelst, who was considered the best still-life painter in Amsterdam. Van Aelst was an acquaintance of Otto Marseus (with whom he had worked in his younger years at the court of the Medici in Florence), and he belonged to her parents’ circle of friends.

In the summer of 1695, Johann Wilhelm, the Elector Palatine, visited Frederik Ruysch’s museum. On that occasion he undoubtedly saw paintings by Rachel, who had meanwhile married the painter Jurriaan Pool. She had just given birth to her first child, but motherhood did not prevent her from continuing her career as a painter, whereas her younger sister Anna, likewise a gifted painter, had stopped painting when she married. Rachel had meanwhile become very successful. She was paid substantial sums for her flower still lifes, and in 1699, in recognition of her work, she was asked to become a member of the Hague painters’ confraternity Pictura. She was the first woman to receive this honour.

Rachel was given commissions by wealthy clients and could thus concentrate on painting only a few works per year, devoting several months to each. Orders had to be placed a long time in advance. In 1708 she was offered the post of court painter to the Elector Palatine. By now the mother of a large family, she was reluctant to go and live in Düsseldorf, and was therefore exempted from her Residenzpflicht, the obligation to live and work at court. This was not a unique construction: Adriaan van der Werf and Jan Weenix were also appointed court painters without having to make their homes in Düsseldorf. Rachel Ruysch received an annual stipend, for which she was required to make only one painting a year for the collection of the Elector and his wife.

She travelled to Düsseldorf a couple of times to deliver her work, but she continued to live in Wolvenstraat in Amsterdam with her husband and numerous children. Even though she was almost 30 when she married, she gave birth to ten children, the last of whom, a boy, was born when she was 47.

Jurriaan Pool was commissioned by the Elector to paint Rachel’s portrait. He turned it into a family picture, painting Rachel and himself with Jan Willem, showing the medallion he had been given by the Elector.

The painters’ biographer Johan van Gool met Rachel in 1748, when she was 84. ‘For a woman of such a ripe age’, he records, she had kept ‘her mind and her appearance wonderfully well’. She received him very kindly and politely, told him about her career, and showed him some of her work. Most of her paintings had been sent abroad, but she showed him a painting started the year before, which she still hoped to finish.

full article

23 May, 2008

Martin King

Martin King: slowly disappearing darling

24th May 2008 - 14th June 2008

Launch of the hand drawn animation, 'slowly disappearing darling', the series of 100 drawings that comprise it, an artist book, and other recent works on paper.

Port Jackson Press
Centre for Australian Printmaking
67 Cambridge St, Collingwood VIC 3066

watch video

I had an opportunity to meet Martin King in Melbourne in 2007. And the great pleasure of watching him at work.



more works

22 May, 2008

Giorgione, Titian & Manet

Titian's Venus of Urbino


"These intertwined themes of possession of the beautiful woman and the creation of her image permeated the Renaissance conception of the female in art. Whereas the ancients asserted that whoever can best depict a beautiful woman deserves to have her, Renaissance people might transfer this privilege of possession from the maker to the owner of the image. This in turn raises questions of patronage and the intended use of Titian's images of women. In some notable instances, the voices of the first owners and viewers of Titian's women may still be heard; we are obliged to listen to them as we view his paintings. Listening, we can no longer dismiss Titian's work as pornography or even as erotica nor summarize it as the display of the passive female object offered to the active male beholder." ...

The Venus of Urbino, like her prototype in Dresden, is a depiction of female sexuality, powerful, to be sure, but finding (in fact, demanding) appropriate fulfillment in marriage....


Venus' direct gaze has been characterized as an "unambiguous sexual invitation" by one wishful art historian. The invitation is germane to the matrimonial context, however, and in no way promiscuous. We may recall the forthright glance of "Profane Love," likewise addressed to her husband. Although modern viewers may be discomforted when caught in the act of looking --"caught in the act of voyeurism" -- Renaissance viewers would find such attention in keeping with the expectation, endorsed by Leon Battista Alberti, that a character would acknowledge beholders with a glance or a gesture. The modern critics' presumption of Venus' impropriety is a misconception that Edouard Manet's Olympia popularized.

Manet's protagonist is a prostitute --not a courtesan, as some critics have assumed Titian's Venus to be, but more the nineteenth-century equivalent of the Renaissance meretrice. The distinction among these categories were not mere niceties in Renaissance Venice. In general, a courtesan was distinguished from a meretrice (prostitute) or puttana (whore) by her class (or class pretensions), by her superior economic status, and by the social status and (limited) number of her lovers. As a concomitant of these social and "romantic" aspects of her position, a courtesan might also claim exemption from sumptuary laws concerning dress and legislation regarding where she might live.

Available to all comers and surrounded by explicit references to her trade, Olympia receives her next john --by implication, the beholder. But what of her Venetian predecessor? In a domestic setting and without Cupid or other explicitly mythological trappings, she may be a goddess or a mortal. If mortal, and even if a courtesan or mistress, she is nonetheless presented with clear indications of social status, and these are merely the trappings that serve to confirm what each woman reveals about herself in her expression and gestures: Olympia is hardened, cynical, blasée; Venus is confident, intelligent, alert. Whatever may have motivated Manet's alterations to Titian's composition --including the imposition of a new name-- the Frenchman's changes imply that he understood the Venetian woman to be a (culture) goddess who required not only modernization but profanation, not only emulation but denigration.

Giorgione's Sleeping Venus [Dresden Venus].


Titian took from Giorgione's Venus both the pose and the gesture. Now that Titian's goddess has awakened to behold her beloved directly, psychological tension established by the sexual demand explicit in her gaze has replaced the self-aborption of the Dresden Venus. The Venus of Urbino adds assertiveness to independence: fully sentient, cognizant, and self-aware, she reclines in a well-furnished, modern (sixteenth-century) bedroom and addresses her sexual power forthrightly to the beholder. Possibly for these psychological reasons --all consistent /p. 154: with Renaissance beliefs about the insatiable sexuality of women --some scholars have seen in her a pejorative implication of Guidobaldo's pithy label, "the nude woman": if she's not a virgin, she most be a whore.

full article:

Bacon & Velazquez

Pope Innocent X by Velazquez

housed in the Galleria Doria Pamphili in Rome.



In the evolution of Francis Bacon's art, especially in its initial stages, several motifs are repeated frequently. Some of them come from specific paintings of the past, such as the portrait of Pope Innocent X by Velazquez

About Bacon (many popes)

"The final night of a week of spectacular art sales in London saw a record of £14 million set for a Francis Bacon painting at Christie's. 10/02/2007

Study for Portrait II, from Bacon's series of "Pope" paintings inspired by Velazquez, made .. an impact... Bids for the brooding picture shot up in £500,000 segments and it was sold in less than two minutes.

Christie's had called it the most important picture from the series to appear on the market and it almost doubled the auction record for a Bacon - £7.8 million set last year." Telegraph article


The painting is from Bacon's most famous series, The Screaming Popes, based on Velásquez's great portrait of Pope Innocent X.

Bacon never saw the 17th century painting, though he obsessively bought prints of it; he once said that he would have been afraid to confront the original, after manipulating it "so atrociously".

Guardian article

19 May, 2008

Willem Witsen

Willem Witsen, Prins Hendrikkade te Amsterdam, 1891. Aquarel.





correspondentie van Willem Witsen

Willem Witsen (1860- 1923) was bevriend met vele belangrijke kunstenaars en literatoren van zijn tijd: George Breitner, Isaac Israels, Jacob van Looy, Jan Veth, Willem Tholen, Willem Kloos, Lodewijk van Deyssel en Frederik van Eeden.
book: http://www.debengel.net/nieuw/dordrecht/willemwitsen.htm

Willem Witsen (1860-1923) belongs with Vincent van Gogh and George Hendrik Breitner to the most important Dutch artists of their generation. He held a key position among the painters and literary figures in what is generally known as the 'Beweging van Tachtig' (The Eighties Movement) which was extremely influential in the Netherlands at the end of the Nineteenth century. His early work concentrates on landscapes and scenes of the working class population but later he became more and more interested in still cityscapes which centered around Amsterdam, Dordrecht and London. He was also a avid photographer, portrait painter and above all an excellent etcher.
This richly illustrated catalogue describing his life and work, and also containing a catalogue raisonné of his etchings, has been produced in collaboration with the Amsterdam City Archives and the Municiple Museum in Dordrecht both of which have organized a major exhibition.

About: http://www.kunstbus.nl/kunst/willem+witsen.html



Prints - Santa Croce, Florence

There was a printmaking exhibition at Santa Croce, unfortunately there was no information or catalogue, and there is nothing on the website.

You can however take a virtual tour of the church and its interior.

Virtual tour

Everything in the church is of the very highest quality: the frescoes executed through the contributions of Giotto, Maso di Banco, Taddeo Gaddi, Giovanni da Milano and Agnolo Gaddi; the monumental crosses and the polyptychs, the splendid fourteenth-century windows; the Renaissance architecture created by Michelozzo and Brunelleschi; the fifteenth-century sculptural works – tombs, altars and pulpits – by the greatest Florentine masters, including Donatello, Antonio and Bernardo Rossellino, Desiderio da Settignano and Benedetto da Maiano.



May 2008 Subject Index

Print Australia
April 2008 - Subject Index

Marino Marini Museum
casestudy - (Un)Safe practices
Willem Witsen
Prints - Santa Croce, Florence
Martin King
Demo of Block Printing
Build an Etching Press
Poster Parody
Paris 1968 Posters
May 1968 - Protest Posters

Dictionary of Australian Artists Online

Andrea del Sarto
Bacon & Velazquez
Giorgione, Titian & Manet
the new normal
Imogen Stidworthy
Traces du Sacré - paris
Rachel Ruysch 1664 - 1750
Whiteley & Bacon
Street Art - Tate Modern UK
What's On in Amsterdam

Arrow - Aust. Research Online
Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene - Hair
Prize for Young Dutch Art Criticism
Shepard Fairey Sources
May 1968 Slogans

New Media

Pure Hate - Wir haben die Züge schön
Pure Hate Graffiti Berlin Lichtenberg


Birds - Florence (Firenze)
Barry McGee Interview
Quiksand - Photos

Artforum: May ’68

April 2008 - Subject Index

Print Australia
March 2008 Subject Index
Site News
Professional practice
Obsession 4 Fashion Show
Umbrella Roadshow - Rotterdam

Henrik Boegh
PrintFest 2008 Annual Print Fair
The London Original Print Fair
Friedhard Kiekeben - Non-toxic printmaking
Mark Andrew Webber
non-toxic printmaking - Gent
2008 Southern Graphics Council Conference
Chinese Printmaking - London
Six Ply - Megalo Canberra
American Prints - British Museum
Politically committed poster art

Wilson HTM National Art Prize
Dream Amsterdam 2008
Obsession 4 Fashion Show
(Con)Temporary Museum Amsterdam
Romantic night in de Appel.
Sydney - exhibitions
Animations / Fictions - Bucharest
MuKHA - Antwerp
Wendy Murray
Cai Guo-Qiang - NY
KRAZY! - Vancouver
artbrussels 2008
Stencil Festival Unplugged exhibition
Nancy Spero - De Appel
Amsterdam Jordaan Quarter - video

Maria Sibylla Merian (1647-1717)
Polish Women Photographers of the 20th Century
fierce pussy
Making It Together - NY

CODEX Foundation Symposium 2007
Illuminated manuscripts - Melbourne
KultureFlash - London
Blood on Paper: The Art of the Book
Medieval Imagination - video

Arts Law Week - Sydney & Melbourne
Professional practice
Digital art and curating
Economies of the Commons - de balie
Not so Gullible
Gregor Schneider - die for art?
Western Round Table on Modern Art - USA 1949

Aliza Shvarts - miscarraige art?

Creative Australia
Activism is Never Done - NY

party time
movie - Bomb the system
Dog Star
monkey magic

Laser 3.14 & Jimmy Rage
PinXit April Newsletter
Graffiti Archaeology
paste it up - basel
michelangelo: graffiti artist
The Gorilli Concept Store

New media
Oron Catts - waag lecture
Robots, Artists and Scientists - ANAT

Experimenta Playground
DIGITAL MEDIA Valencia 2008

15 May, 2008

Mary Magdalene - Hair

titian c1533

“The Last Supper” by Leonardo de Vinci - showing Christ with the twelve Apostles ... John? (although some believe that this person looks like a female and could be a representation of Mary Magdalene sitting at Christ’s right hand side!) Mary Magdalene was a disciple of Jesus and has the title of Apostle to the Apostles.

Mary Magdalen by Da Vinci.

Life of Mary

Artemesia 1630-32

As a follower, Mary was one of many women that accompanied Jesus during his travels, most of whom are believed to have been wealthy. During his journey, he was visited by two women, the unnamed sinner in Luke 7 and Mary of Bethany, both of whom anoint his feet and dry them with their hair, similar to the way Magdalene anointed him shortly after his death..

In 591, Pope Gregory the Great stated that all three were in fact one woman, Mary Magdalene, and this is how she became labeled as a prostitute, or the unnamed sinner.

However the Second Vatican Council removed the prostitute label in 1969 after much debate and Biblical evidence that there was more than one Mary and that Mary of Magdalene and the unnamed sinner were two different figures.

Brock, Ann Graham. Mary Magdalene, The First Apostle: The Struggle for Authority. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003.
Brock’s book looks at the struggle for power between Mary and Peter after Jesus’ death and immediate resurrection. She uses early Christian writings, such as the Gospels of the New Testament as well as Gnostic Gospels to show how Peter in his quest for authority subjugated the status of women that set the standard for the male hierarchy for years to come. The purpose of her book is to regain Mary’s status as the first apostle so that other Christians can look to her example, regardless of gender, and take a more active role in the church. The book is extremely well written and I recommend it to those who are examining Mary’s role in the beginning of Christianity as well as those who are trying to understand how she became better recognized as a sinner than an apostle. Ann Graham Brock is a professor at Harvard University."


14 May, 2008

Arrow - Aust. Research Online

Welcome to the ARROW Discovery Service - where you can search Australia’s research repositories. The service is provided by the National Library of Australia.

Currently, more than half of Australian universities have public research repositories, which can be simultaneously searched through this site.

While the specific open access policies will vary between universities, these repositories offer a vehicle for researchers to make their work publicly available. Researchers deposit a digital copy of their work, along with some descriptive information, into the repository.

Most of the items discoverable through the site will have a digital copy available, although some may not yet have a file attached, and others may have access restricted.

It is anticipated that all Australian universities will develop repositories in the next two years, and the service will grow to offer a comprehensive search of Australian research output. The research itself may be in any form - published or unpublished; text, image or dataset; historical or current.

The National Library of Australia is keen to include as many sources of Australian research as possible. The service also searches several other collections of Australian research, including Australian Policy Online, and Australasian Digital Theses Program.

Welcome to the ARROW Discovery Service - where you can search 156,221 Australian research outputs, including theses; preprints; postprints; journal articles; book chapters; music recordings and pictures.


12 May, 2008

Mary Magdalene

In 1945, at Nag Hammadi in southern Egypt, two men came across a sealed ceramic jar. Inside, they discovered a hoard of ancient papyrus books. Although they never received as much public attention as the Dead Sea Scrolls, these actually turn out to be much more important for writing the history of early Christianity. They are a cache of Christian texts.

The Nag Hammadi texts tell us about early Christians. They were written in Coptic, the language of early Christian Egypt. As most ancient Christian texts have been lost, this discovery was exceptional.

The discovery includes the Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Philip and the Acts of Peter. None of these texts were included in the Bible, because the content didn't conform to Christian doctrine, and they're referred to as apocryphal.

For the first time in hundreds of years there was a new source of information about Mary Magdalene.
She appears very frequently as one of the prominent disciples of Jesus. In certain texts where Jesus is in discussion with his disciples, Mary Magdalene asks many informed questions. Whereas the other disciples at times seem confused, she is the one who understands.

One of the documents discovered at Nag Hammadi is the Gospel of Philip, in which Mary Magdalene is a key figure.

Mary Magdalene appears in this text also not only as the disciple he loved most but also as a symbolic figure of heavenly wisdom. These stories of Mary - as Jesus' closest companion and a symbol of heavenly wisdom - are in sharp contrast with the Mary Magdalene of popular imagination.

We're told that Mary Magdalene was one of the women who kept vigil at Jesus' tomb. It was customary at this time for Jewish women to prepare bodies for burial.
Corpses were considered unclean, and so it was always a woman's task to handle them.

You might think, then, that at the very least Mary would be recognised as an apostle - one of the early missionaries who founded the religion - as she seems to meet all the criteria set out in the Bible. The reason why she is not perhaps lies in another long lost apocryphal text. In a Cairo bazaar in 1896, a German scholar happened to come across a curious papyrus book. Bound in leather and written in Coptic, this was the Gospel of Mary.Like the books found at Nag Hammadi, the Gospel according to Mary Magdalene is also considered an apocryphal text.

In texts like the Gospel of Philip, Mary was presented as a symbol of wisdom. However in the Gospel of Mary, she is the one in charge, telling the disciples about Jesus' teachings.

... Peter then chimes in and he says, 'Are we supposed to now all turn around and listen to her? Would Jesus have spoken privately with a woman rather than openly to us? Did he prefer her to us?'

Matthew defends Mary and quells Peter's attack on her. In the text, Peter's problem seems to be that Jesus selected Mary above the other disciples to interpret his teachings. Peter sees Mary as a rival for the leadership of the group itself.

Perhaps the Gospel of Mary was just too radical. It presents Mary as a teacher and spiritual guide to the other disciples. She's not just a disciple; she's the apostle to the apostles.



... Levi answered and said to Peter, Peter you have always been hot tempered.

7) Now I see you contending against the woman like the adversaries.

8) But if the Savior made her worthy, who are you indeed to reject her? Surely the Savior knows her very well.

9) That is why He loved her more than us


The Gospel According to Mary Magdalene


Editors note: The purpose of this post is simply to identify a charactor featured in many renaissance paintings, not to engage in religous debate. The questions were raised as to 'who is the magdelane?' and 'why is she always depicted clothed in ankle length hair and little else?' The next post addresses part two of that question.


according to the Jewish historian Josephus, the daughter of Herodias and stepdaughter of Herod Antipas, tetrarch (ruler appointed by Rome) of Galilee, a region in Palestine. In Biblical literature she is remembered as the immediate agent in the execution of John the Baptist. Josephus states that she was twice married, first to the tetrarch Philip (a half brother of her father, Herod, and a son of Herod I the Great) and then to Aristobulus (son of Herod of Chalcis). She is not to be confused with Salome, sister of Herod I the Great.

According to the Gospels of Mark (6:14–29) and Matthew (14:1–12), Herod Antipas had imprisoned John the Baptist for condemning his marriage to Herodias, the divorced wife of his half brother Herod Philip (the marriage violated Mosaic Law), but Herod was afraid to have the popular prophet killed. Nevertheless, when Salome danced before Herod and his guests at a festival, he promised to give her whatever she asked. Prompted by her mother, Herodias, who was infuriated by John's condemnation of her marriage, the girl demanded the head of John the Baptist on a platter, and the unwilling Herod was forced by his oath to have John beheaded. Salome took the platter with John's head and gave it to her mother.

This story proved popular in Christian art from an early period and became especially popular during the Renaissance



Another Salome

The great and holy myrrh-bearer Salome was one of the women disciples of Jesus. She was the daughter of St. Joseph the Betrothed and his first wife (who was also named Salome), making the Theotokos her step-mother. She married Zebedee and became the mother of the Apostles James and John. Her feast day is celebrated on August 3. As one of the myrrh-bearing women who brought spices to Christ's tomb and found it empty, she is celebrated as one who first brought tidings of the Resurrection to the world, especially on the Sunday of Myrrh-bearing Women. She was mentioned in the bible four times.


Abraham to Zacharias:
An Alphabetical Listing of Christian Art by Topic


Chiostro dello Scalzo

This small cloister forms the entrance to the chapel of the Confraternity of the Disciplinati of St John the Baptist, known as the Cloister of the Scalzo, founded in 1376.

At various intervals between 1509 and 1526, the great Florentine artist Andrea del Sarto painted the walls with frescoes depicting Scenes from the life of St John the Baptist and the Virtues, except for two episodes that were painted by Franciabigio.

For any information:

Chiostro dello Scalzo
Via Cavour 69.
Open Mon, Tue, Sat 8,15am-1.50pm.
Admission: free.


(b. 1486, Firenze, d. 1530, Firenze)

Florentine painter. The epithet 'del sarto' (of the tailor) is derived from his father's profession; his real name was Andrea d'Agnolo di Francesco. After an apprenticeship under Piero di Cosimo he soon absorbed the poised and graceful style developed by Fra Bartolommeo and Raphael in Florence during the first decade of the 16th century, and following the departures of Leonardo, Raphael, and Michelangelo (all of whom had left Florence by 1509) he became established with Bartolommeo as the leading painter of the city. Apart from a visit to Fontainebleau in 1518-19 to work for Francis I, Andrea was based in Florence all his life, although he probably visited Rome soon after his return from France, and made short visits elsewhere.

He excelled as a fresco decorator (there are outstanding examples in Florence in SS. Annunziata and the Chiostro dello Scalzo), and he also painted superb altarpieces (The Madonna of the Harpies, Uffizi, Florence, 1517) and portraits (A Young Man, National Gallery, London).

Andrea executed fresco decorations for the Servites, a religious order, in their Church of the Santissima Annunziata at Florence. By 1510 he completed five scenes depicting events in the life of S. Filippo Benizzi, a 13th-century leader of the Servite order. Many commissions followed, including the grisailles (monochromatic frescoes painted in shades of gray) of Saint John the Baptist in the cloister of the Scalzo in Florence.

In 1518 he was summoned to the court of Francis I of France, who entrusted him with money to purchase works of art in Italy. He returned to Florence in 1519 and remained there, using the money for his own purposes. In Florence, Andrea continued his work on the fresco series in the cloister of the Scalzo, which he completed in 1526. In 1525 he painted the Madonna del Sacco, which is generally considered his masterpiece, in the cloister of Santissima Annunziata. He executed his last major work in fresco, the Last Supper (1527) in the refectory of the convent of San Salvi near Florence. Among his other noted works are the Pietà (1524, Pitti Palace) and The Assumption (1530, Pitti Palace).

Andrea's reputation was largely made and marred by Vasari, who said that Andrea's works were 'faultless' but represented him as a weakling completely under the thumb of his wicked wife. In Robert Browning's poem on the painter (1855) and in a psychoanalytic essay by Freud's disciple Ernest Jones (1913) attempts are made to link a supposed lack of vigour in his mellifluous art with these traits of character. This, however, is hardly just and a good deal of Vasari's account of Andrea's private life has been shown to be factually inaccurate (the scandalmongering is mainly in the 1550 edition of his book and was suppressed in the 1568 edition).

Andrea has suffered from being the contemporary of such giants as Michelangelo and Raphael, but he undoubtedly ranks as one of the greatest masters of his time. In grandeur and gracefulness he approaches Raphael, and he had a feeling for colour and atmosphere that was unrivalled among Florentine painters of his period. He also numbers among the finest draughtsmen of the Renaissance (the best collection of his drawings is in the Uffizi). Certain features of his art foreshadow the Mannerist experiments of his great pupils Pontormo and Rosso Fiorentino. The many other artists who trained in his busy workshop include Salviati and Vasari.

Marino Marini Museum

The Marino Marini Museum, in the heart of the historical centre of Florence, between via della Vigna Nuova and piazza Santa Maria Novella, is housed in the ancient church of S. Pancrazio, founded before 1000, deconsacrated in 1809 and used for several activities for Down one century. The museum was inaugurated in 1988 after the extensive restoration work directed by the architeots Bruno Sacchi and Lorenzo Papi.


Italian sculptor was born in Pistoia in 1901. He is best knows for his many vigorous sculptures of horses and horsemen, although he has created notable portrait busts, group statues, paintings and drawings. After 1955 he tended toward a more dramatic expression of form. In 1917 he enrolled in the Florence Accademia di Belle Arti where he followed courses in painting taught by Galileo Chini and sculpture by Domenico Trentacoste. These early years of artistic activity in Via degli Artist were mainly devoted to painting and drawing. Marini's first important sculpture, Popolo (in terracotta), was produced in 1929. Marini intensified his output of paintings in the mid 60s. In 1979 a documentation centre for his works wa set up in Pistoia the town in which he was born.

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